Native Hawaiian Fishponds

Perfect way to start the morning #paepaeoheeia #heeiafishpond

Perfect way to start the morning #paepaeoheeia #heeiafishpond

Hele on to #kiholo, #holoholo by the bay

Hele on to #kiholo, #holoholo by the bay

Fostering my #makai collaborations today.sharing data, talking grants and building pilina for future

Fostering my #makai collaborations today.sharing data, talking grants and building pilina for future

Connections #maukatomakai, #molokai #holoholo

Connections #maukatomakai, #molokai #holoholo

Experiencing #haleolono #fishpond with an amazing #konohiki guide

Experiencing #haleolono #fishpond with an amazing #konohiki guide

The pua of #waiahole #fishpond

The pua of #waiahole #fishpond

The #fishponds of #keaukaha. A monday fishpond kinda morning. #fishpondscience #sedimentcores

The #fishponds of #keaukaha. A monday fishpond kinda morning. #fishpondscience #sedimentcores

#lokowaka #fishpond.jpg the #ulua pond.jpg #keaukaha

#lokowaka #fishpond.jpg the #ulua pond.jpg #keaukaha

The #aholehole of #lokowaka #fishpond. #massivebuggahs

The #aholehole of #lokowaka #fishpond. #massivebuggahs

Experiencing the majestic #kiholo #fishpond

Experiencing the majestic #kiholo #fishpond

Small kine sample action

Small kine sample action

Our guide and exporation partners

Our guide and exporation partners

#crystalclear. The underwater tour. #kiholo #fishpond

#crystalclear. The underwater tour. #kiholo #fishpond

Aloha kakahiaka #heeiafishpond. Beautiful benefits of #dielsampling

Aloha kakahiaka #heeiafishpond. Beautiful benefits of #dielsampling

Working on the other side of the wall today

Working on the other side of the wall today

Oooo kanani!! Perfect start to the week! #paepaeoheeia #fishpond #weeklysamples #fieldwork

Oooo kanani!! Perfect start to the week! #paepaeoheeia #fishpond #weeklysamples #fieldwork

Blue

Blue

Talking story at #waikalualokoia

Talking story at #waikalualokoia

Sharing out and listening to mana'o from a community of loko i'a practitioners is incredibly valuabl

Sharing out and listening to mana'o from a community of loko i'a practitioners is incredibly valuabl

A different perspective

A different perspective

Gorgeous start to the week.jpg #paepaeoheeia #heeiafishpond #ānuenue #laieikawai.jpg #doublerainbowa

Gorgeous start to the week.jpg #paepaeoheeia #heeiafishpond #ānuenue #laieikawai.jpg #doublerainbowa

     For hundreds of years, Native Hawaiians had the means to sustainably support the sustenance of their people through productive aquaculture in fishponds (loko iʻa). Built at the interface of where mountain streams enter the ocean, these shallow ponds constituted a beneficial form of eutrophication that promoted the growth of marine algae and photosynthetic microbes such as microalgae, diatoms and green bacteria. Ancient Hawaiians actively manipulated the flow of nutrients from either fresh or ocean water by combining detailed phenomenological observation with prudent land management strategies. Moreover, the architectural design of the walls (kuapa) and sluice gates (makaha) of the loko iʻa allowed young tiny fish, like mullet (amaʻama and ʻanae), to enter into the loko iʻa but not escape - trapping them until maturity. As a result of grazing on algae cultivated within the loko iʻa, the immense populations of fish produced amounted to an efficient, dependable, and easily accessible protein source that supported nearby Hawaiian communities. Thus loko iʻa were of incredible cultural, religious and economic importance and symbolized the connections that Hawaiians formed between themselves, the land (ʻaina), the ocean (kai) and the gods (akua).

      Estimates place the number of loko iʻa in the Hawaiian Islands at the turn of the last century at 488, yet only 14 remain in production - the result of the development and urbanization of coastal habitats in Hawaii. Today a grassroots movement to restore these historical and culturally significant loko iʻa provides a unique vehicle for bridging the fields of physical, social, and cultural science.  Because the success of loko iʻa rests on the productivity of the algae and photosynthetic microbes, achieving an understanding how to precisely control nutrient flux into the loko iʻa is essential. 

We extremely grateful to our collaborations and interactions with Paepae O Heʻeia, Kiholo Fishpond, Hale O Lono, Waihole Fishpond, Kapalaho Fishpond, Kuaʻāina Ulu ʻAuamo, Kamehameha Schools, Hui Mālama Loko iʻa, The Nature Conservancy, Hui Loko, Hui Aloha Kiholo, Ka Honua Momona 

Research Interests:
Study Sites:

Environmental drivers of microbial dynamics

Microbial impact on biogeochemical cycles

Relationships between thermodynamic and kinetic metabolic processes

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Kiana Frank Kiana Laieikawai Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Laieikawai Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Laieikawai Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Laieikawai Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Laieikawai Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Laieikawai Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Frank Kiana Frank Kiana FrankHawaii Microbes Microbiology Labhuiofrank PBRC PBRC PBRC PBRC PBRC PBRC PBRC
Experiencing #haleolono #fishpond with an amazing #konohiki guide