Native Hawaiians constructed subsistence farming systems utilizing intensive irrigation-based terraces built off intact stream ecosystems to support indigenous crops (e.g. kalo). Kalo is of incredible economic, cultural and religious importance to the Hawaiian people. Aside from being the staple starch crop of the Hawaiian diet, kalo is greatly respected as the older brother of all Hawaiians. Because of the historical use of herbicides in Hawaii’s intensive agricultural age, there is great concern about lingering sources of pollutants in our watersheds that are capable of harming our food crops.
As the community works towards restoring ancient practices of subsistence farming to feed both the bodies and spirits of our community, we face many contemporary challenges - including congested irrigation systems, invasive plants, inadequate aeration and pollutants. Inadequate aeration has been especially problematic for kalo farmers because the lack of oxygen promotes root rot as well as other microbial processes.
We extremely grateful to our collaborations and interactions with Kakoʻo Ōiwi, Papahana Kuaola, Loʻi o Kanewai, Hoʻokuaʻāina, Kamehameha Schools, Hawaiinuiakea
Relationships between thermodynamic and kinetic metabolic processes